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Pathways


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Complete List of Pathways

AKT Signaling Pathway

AKT Signaling Pathway

Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis.

Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling

Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling

The Angiopoietins are a new family of Growth Factor ligands that bind to TIE2/Tek TRK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinase).

Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHC's Pathway

Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHC's

Antigen processing and presentation are the processes that result in association of proteins with MHC molecules for recognition by a T-Cell.

Apoptosis Through Death Receptors Pathway

Apoptosis Through Death Receptors

Certain cells have unique sensors, termed Death Receptors which detect the presence of extracellular death signals and rapidly ignite the cell's intrinsic apoptosis machinery.

APRIL Pathway

APRIL Pathway

In immune responses, APRIL acts as a costimulator for B and T cell proliferation and supports class switch.

B-Cell Development Pathway

B-Cell Development Pathway

In immune responses, APRIL acts as a costimulator for B and T cell proliferation and supports class switch.

B-Cell Receptor Complex

B-Cell Receptor Complex

The B-Cell receptor complex usually consists of an antigen-binding subunit which is composed of two Ig Heavy Chains and two Ig Light Chains, and a signaling subunit.

BMP Pathway

BMP Pathway

BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) are a large subclass of the TGF-Beta (Transforming Growth Factor-Beta) super family.

Cancer Immunoediting

Cancer Immunoediting

The immune system attempts to constrain tumour growth, but sometimes tumour cells might escape or attenuate this immune pressure.

CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages

CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages

CCR5 (Chemokine-CC Motif-Receptor-5) is a member of the chemokine receptor subclass of the GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptor) superfamily.

CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage

CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage

Each mature T-cell generally retains expression of the co-receptor molecule (CD4 or CD8) that has an MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)-binding property that matches that of its TCR.

Cellular Apoptosis Pathway

Cellular Apoptosis Pathway

Apoptosis is a naturally occurring proces by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death.

CTL Mediated Apoptosis

CTL Mediated Apoptosis

The CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes), also known as killer T-Cells, are produced during cell-mediated immunity designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.

CTLA4 Signaling Pathway

CTLA4 Signaling Pathway

The costimulatory CTLA4 pathway, attenuates or downregulates T cell activation and CTLA4 is designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.

Cytokine Network

Cytokine Network

Cytokines have been classified on the basis of their biological responses into pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, depending on their effects on immunocytes.

ErbB Family Pathway

ErbB Family Pathway

The ErbB family of transmembrane Receptor Tyrosine Kinases plays and important role during the growth and development of organs.

Fas Signaling

Fas Signaling

FAS (also called Apo1 or CD95) is a death domain containing member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily.

FGF Pathway

FGF Pathway

One of the best-characterized modulators of angiogenesis is the heparin-binding FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor).

Granulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis

Granulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis

Adhesion and Diapedesis of granulocytes have mostly been analyzed in context to non-lymphoid endothelium.

Granzyme Pathway

Granzyme Pathway

Granzyme A (GzmA) activates a caspase-independent cell death pathway with morphological features of apoptosis.

GSK3 Signaling

GSK3 Signaling

GSK3 is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase found in all eukaryotes.

Hematopoiesis from Multipotent Stem Cells

Hematopoiesis from Multipotent Stem Cells

Hematopoietic stem cells are classified into long-term, short-term and Multipotent progenitors, based on the extent of their self-renewal abilities.

Hematopoiesis from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Hematopoiesis from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Pluripotent cells are capable of forming virtually all of the possible tissue types found in human beings.

ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cells

ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation and differentiation of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T Cells

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation and differentiation of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

IL-6 Pathway

IL-6 Pathway

IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects the immune system and many physiological events in various organs.

IL-10 Pathway

IL-10 Pathway

IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions and whose activities influence many immune cell types.

IL-22 Pathway

IL-22 Pathway

IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines and exerts multiple effects on the immune system.

Interferon Pathway

Interferon Pathway

Interferons are pleiotropic cytokines best known for their ability to induce cellular resistance to viral infection.

JAK/STAT Pathway

JAK/STAT Pathway

The JAK/STAT pathway is a signaling cascade whose evolutionarily conserved roles include cell proliferation and hematopoiesis.

MAPK Family Pathway

MAPK Family Pathway

MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) belong to a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans.

Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency

Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency

Nanog is a transcription factor transcribed in pluripotent cells and is down-regulated upon cell differentiation.

p53 Mediated Apoptosis Pathway

p53 Mediated Apoptosis Pathway

Tumor protein p53 is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in apoptosis, growth arrest or senescence in response to genotoxic or cellular stress.

Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Pathogenesis is a chronic symmetric polyarticular joint disease that primarily affects the small joints of the hands and feet.

PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocytes

PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocytes

PI3K's regulate numerous biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration and metabolism.

RANK Pathway

RANK Pathway

RANKL and its receptor RANK are key regulators of bone remodeling, and are essential for the development and activation of osteoclasts.

RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts

RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts

RANKL induces the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells and stimulates the resorption function and survival of mature osteoclasts.

TGF Beta Pathway

TGF Beta Pathway

Members of the TGF beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis and repair of most tissues.

THC Differentiation Pathway

THC Differentiation Pathway

The abbreviations TH1 (T-helper Cell type 1) and TH2 (T-Helper Cell type 2) refer to CD4+ alpha-beta TCR T-Cell subsets that provide help to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems.

TNF Signaling Pathway

TNF Signaling Pathway

TNF is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine with effectson lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance and endothelial function.

TNF Superfamily Pathway

TNF Superfamily Pathway

The TNF Superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNFR Superfamily.

Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

Transport of plasma proteins and solutes across the endothelium involves two different routes: transcellular and paracellular junctions.

Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells

Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors.

TWEAK Pathway

TWEAK Pathway

TWEAK is a cell surface-associated protein belonging to the TNF superfamily and has multiple biological activities.

VEGF Family Ligands and Receptor Interactions

VEGF Family of Ligands and Receptor Interactions

VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) is a highly conserved genetic pathway that has evolved from simple to complex systems.