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Pathways


AI

Adaptive Immunity Pathways

AKT Signaling Pathway

AKT Signaling Pathway

Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis.

Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHC's Pathway

Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHC's

Antigen processing and presentation are the processes that result in association of proteins with MHC molecules for recognition by a T-Cell.

APRIL Pathway

APRIL Pathway

In immune responses, APRIL acts as a costimulator for B and T cell proliferation and supports class switch.

B-Cell Development Pathway

B-Cell Development Pathway

In immune responses, APRIL acts as a costimulator for B and T cell proliferation and supports class switch.

B-Cell Receptor Complex

B-Cell Receptor Complex

The B-Cell receptor complex usually consists of an antigen-binding subunit which is composed of two Ig Heavy Chains and two Ig Light Chains, and a signaling subunit.

CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage

CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage

Each mature T-cell generally retains expression of the co-receptor molecule (CD4 or CD8) that has an MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)-binding property that matches that of its TCR.

CTLA4 Signaling Pathway

CTLA4 Signaling Pathway

The costimulatory CTLA4 pathway, attenuates or downregulates T cell activation and CTLA4 is designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.

Fas Signaling

Fas Signaling

FAS (also called Apo1 or CD95) is a death domain containing member of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor superfamily.

Granzyme Pathway

Granzyme Pathway

Granzyme A (GzmA) activates a caspase-independent cell death pathway with morphological features of apoptosis.

ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cells

ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation and differentiation of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T Cells

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation and differentiation of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

IL-6 Pathway

IL-6 Pathway

IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects the immune system and many physiological events in various organs.

IL-10 Pathway

IL-10 Pathway

IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions and whose activities influence many immune cell types.

Interferon Pathway

Interferon Pathway

Interferons are pleiotropic cytokines best known for their ability to induce cellular resistance to viral infection.

JAK/STAT Pathway

JAK/STAT Pathway

The JAK/STAT pathway is a signaling cascade whose evolutionarily conserved roles include cell proliferation and hematopoiesis.

MAPK Family Pathway

MAPK Family Pathway

MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) belong to a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans.

PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocytes

PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocytes

PI3K's regulate numerous biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration and metabolism.

RANK Pathway

RANK Pathway

RANKL and its receptor RANK are key regulators of bone remodeling, and are essential for the development and activation of osteoclasts.

TGF Beta Pathway

TGF Beta Pathway

Members of the TGF beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis and repair of most tissues.

THC Differentiation Pathway

THC Differentiation Pathway

The abbreviations TH1 (T-helper Cell type 1) and TH2 (T-Helper Cell type 2) refer to CD4+ alpha-beta TCR T-Cell subsets that provide help to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems.

TNF Superfamily Pathway

TNF Superfamily Pathway

The TNF Superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNFR Superfamily.

Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

Transport of plasma proteins and solutes across the endothelium involves two different routes: transcellular and paracellular junctions.

Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells

Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors.