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Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Dyes Chart

Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Dye
DyeExcitationEmissionFunctionBenefitsLimitations
JC-1  515 nm 530 nm (monomer/ depolarized)
590 nm (aggregates/ polarized) 
Measures polarization/ depolarization of mitochondrial membrane

Selectively enters mitochondria & can be used to indicate the initiation of apoptosis.

Changes in fluorescence is reversible.

Compatible with flow cytometry and fluorescent spectrophotometry. 

Provides qualitative and quantitative measurements.

Compensation between the monomer and aggregate emission can be difficult.