Description: This FlowCytomix Simplex Kit is designed for the measurement of Rat IFN-gamma in an immunoassay analyzed on a flow cytometer. Together with the FlowCytomix Mouse/Rat Basic Kit (cat. BMS8440FF), this kit can be used to detect IFN-gamma alone or can be multiplexed with other Simplex Kits to measure a variety of analytes.
This kit contains bead population B8.
IFN-gamma, also called Type III interferon, is a homodimeric glycoprotein containing approximately 21 to 24 kD subunits.
In contrast to IFN-alpha and IFN-beta synthesis, which can occur in any cell, production of IFN-gamma is a function of T cells and NK cells. All IFN-gamma inducers activate T cells either in a polyclonal (mitogens or antibodies) or in a clonally restricted, antigen-specific, manner.
IFN-gamma is produced during infection by T cells of the cytotoxic/suppressor phenotype (CD8) and by a subtype of helper T cells, the Th1 cells. Th1 cells secrete IL-2, IL-3, TNF-beta and IFN-gamma, whereas Th2 cells mainly produce IL-3, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, but little or no IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma preferentially inhibits the proliferation of Th2 but not Th1 cells, indicating that the presence of IFN-gamma during an immune response will result in the preferential proliferation of Th1 cells.
Type II IFN or IFN-gamma is a lymphokine that displays no molecular homology with type I IFN, but shares some important biologic activities. Specifically, IFN-gamma induces an anti-viral state and is anti-proliferative. In addition, IFN-gamma has several properties related to immunoregulation.
(1) IFN-gamma is a potent activator of mononuclear phagocytes, e.g. IFN-gamma stimulates the expression of Mac-1, augments endocytosis and phagocytosis by monocytes, and activates macrophages to kill tumor cells by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates and TNF-alpha.
(2) IFN-gamma induces or augments the expression of MHC antigens on macrophages, T and B cells and some tumor cell lines.
(3) On T and B cells IFN-gamma promotes differentiation. It enhances proliferation of activated B cells and can act synergistically with IL-2 to increase immunoglobulin light-chain synthesis. IFN-gamma is one of the natural B-cell differentiation factors.
(4) Finally, IFN-gamma activates neutrophils, NK cells and vascular endothelial cells.
The role of IFN-gamma as a disease marker has been demonstrated for a number of different pathological situations.