Description: This Rat Cytokine 5plex FlowCytomix Kit is designed for the measurement of rat IFN-gamma, IL-1alpha, IL-4, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha in an immunoassay analyzed on a flow cytometer.
This kit contains the following bead populatio: IFN-gamma (B8), IL-1alpha (A6), IL-4 (B10), MCP-1 (A8) and TNF-alpha (A12).
IFN-gamma, also called Type III interferon, is a homodimeric glycoprotein produced during infection by T cells of the cytotoxic/suppressor phenotype (CD8) and by a subtype of helper T cells, the Th1 cells. Th1 cells secrete IL-2, IL-3, TNF-beta and IFN-gamma, whereas Th2 cells mainly produce IL-3, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, but little or no IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma preferentially inhibits the proliferation of Th2 but not Th1 cells, indicating that the presence of IFN-gamma during an immune response will result in the preferential proliferation of Th1 cells.Type II IFN or IFN-gamma is a lymphokine that displays no molecular homology with type I IFN, but shares some important biologic activities. Specifically, IFN-gamma induces an anti-viral state and is anti-proliferative. In addition, IFN-gamma has several properties related to immunoregulation.
TNF-alpha, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha also known as cachectin, is a polypeptide cytokine produced by monocytes and macrophages. It functions as a multipotent modulator of immune response and further acts as a potent pyrogen. TNF-alpha circulates throughout the body responding to stimuli (infectious agents or tissue injury), activating neutrophils, altering the properties of vascular endothelial cells, regulating metabolic activities of other tissues, as well as exhibiting tumoricidal activity by inducing localized blood clotting. TNF-alpha also inhibits lipoprotein lipase activity resulting in cachexia, a physical wasting condition. Due to its varied actions throughout the immune system, TNF-alpha may play a role in the pathogenesis of many disease states.
IL-1alpha is an extracellular peptide, its activity has been demonstrated in various biological fluids. The interleukin-1 (IL-1) species represent an important family of biologically active mononuclear cell-derived proteins which are involved in inflammatory reactions and in immune responses. Two distinct IL-1 species, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, have been identified. They share similarities such as the same molecular weight, similar biological effects and the same receptors on target cells.
IL-4 mediates ist function by binding to receptors expressed on target cells. Receptors exist on freshly prepared B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, as well as on various cell lines including lymphoid cells, mast cell lines, a variety of other hematopoietic cell lines, fibroblasts and stromal cell lines. On T and B cells, receptors are present in low numbers, which are reported to be upregulated by IL-2 and IL-4. IL-4 exerts numerous effects on various hematopoietic cell types. On B cells, IL-4 promotes immunological class switching to IgE and IgG1 isotypes and upregulates MHC class II and CD23 expression. It can promote survival, growth, and differentiation of both T and B lymphocytes, mast cells, and endothelial cells. In addition, IL-4 can inhibit the production of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 by macrophages.
The CC-chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was characterized as a monocyte-specific chemoattractant that was later shown to attract also T lymphocytes and NK cells. MCP-1 is mainly expressed by macrophages in response to a wide range of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, but can, upon stimulation, also be produced by a variety of cells and tissues, such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells or certain tumor cells. Because of ist target cell specificity, MCP-1 was postulated to play a pathogenic role in a variety of diseases characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration.