Description: Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine that promotes inflammatory responses in cell lines and is elevated in rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and transplant rejection. The cDNA encoding human IL-17A was isolated from a library of CD4+ T cells; the encoded protein exhibits 72 percent amino acid identity with HVS13 , an open reading frame from a T lymphotropic Herpesvirus saimiri, and 63 percent with mouse CTLA-8 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-8). Human IL-17A exists as glycosylated 20-30 kD homodimers. High levels of IL-17A homodimer are produced by activated peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. IL-17A enhances expression of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human fibroblasts. Human IL-17A also stimulates epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblastic cells to secrete IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, and PGE2. In the presence of human IL-17A, fibroblasts can sustain the proliferation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors and induce maturation into neutrophils. Mouse, rat, and human IL-17A can induce IL-6 secretion in mouse stromal cells, indicating that all homologs can recognize the mouse receptor. IL-17A binds to a receptor that binds also to HVS13 (viral IL-17A) and to CTLA-8.