Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Overview
Since the discovery of stem cells their potential to regenerate tissue has intrigued scientists. A significant breakthrough toward this goal occurred in 2006 when the group of Shinya Yamanaka demonstrated the formation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult mouse fibroblasts through the retroviral-mediated introduction of the transcription factors Oct 3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Then, in 2007 this method was extended to human stem cells when the same set of transcription factors was used to “reprogram” human fibroblasts into pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, the stem cells generated with this technology have proven to be very similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells based on their expression of “stemness” genes, formation of teratomas upon injection into nude hosts and their contribution to multiple lineages. In a short time, considerable progress has been made with this technology. Already, iPS cells have been successfully derived from a patient with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and redirected to differentiate into motor neurons. A significant challenge will be devising strategies for the generation of iPS cells without the use of viral-mediated gene delivery. To this end, it was recently reported that iPS cells were generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts through the repeated transfection of non-integrating plasmids expressing reprogramming factors. This resulted in iPS cells without evidence of plasmid integration, which produced teratomas when transplanted into mice and contributed to adult chimeras.
eBioscience provides high-quality and low endotoxin recombinant mouse LIF and recombinant human FGF-basic for derivation and maintenance of iPS and ES cells. In addition, eBioscience offers a complete set of antibodies to identify the pluripotent state.
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Culture
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
|Property||iPS Cells||ES Cell||ES Cells from Nuclear Transfer||Stem Cells From Fusion of Somatic Cells with ES Cells|
|Reported in Humans||Yes||Yes||No||Yes|
|Embryos or Donor Oocytes Required||No||Yes||Yes||Existing ES cells required|
|Stemness Markers Expressed||Yes||Yes||Yes||
|Useful for Models of Human Disease||Yes||Some||Yes||Some|
|Useful for Drug Screening||Yes||
|Develop Into Specific Human Tissue||To be shown||Yes||Not shown in humans||
|Genetically Match the Patient||Unknown||No||Unknown||No|
|Additional Information||Cells are genetically modified||Cells are allogeneic||Human oocytes in limited supply||Tetraploid|
Induced pluripotent stem cells: current progress and potential for regenerative medicine. Amabile G, Meissner A. Trends Mol Med. 2009 Feb;15(2):59-68. Epub 2009 Jan 21. Review.
The promise of human induced pluripotent stem cells for research and therapy. Nishikawa S, Goldstein RA, Nierras CR. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Sep;9(9):725-9. Review.