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IL-12 Family of Cytokines

IL-35 Overview

Structure of IL-35

IL-35 is reportedly composed of two subunits p35 and EBI3, which are shared with other IL-12 family members, namely IL-12 and IL-27, respectively.  p35, which is related to IL-6 and G-CSF, is secreted in response to IFNγ and agonists of TLR3, 4, or 7.  In contrast, expression of this subunit is inhibited by Th2 cytokines. EBI3 is a 34-kDa glycoprotein that was first identified in B cells following Epstein-Barr virus infection, and is homologous to the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23.  Studies also indicate that EBI3 exists independently of other subunits and as a heterodimer with p28 (IL-30) to form IL-27.   The exact mechanism underlying the formation and production of IL-35 remains under investigation.

Function of IL-35

The biology of IL-35 is not well understood.  Nevertheless, the expression and function of this cytokine may be unique among the IL-12 family members.  Studies suggest that IL-35 is produced by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and functions to suppress inflammation.  IL-35 may mediate this effect by influencing the proliferation and function of effector T cells.

IL-35 Data Examples

Human IL-27 EBI3 Antibody PE Data

Human IL-27 EBI3 PE

In vitro-cultured human dendritic cells unstimulated (left) or stimulated with Human IFN alpha 2 Recombinant Protein and LPS in the presence of Protein Transport Inhibitor Cocktail (right) and stained with Anti-Human CD11c followed by fixation and intracellular staining with Anti-Human IL-27 EBI3. Total viable cells were used for analysis.

Human IL-12 Antibody Alexa Fluor 488 Data

Human IL-12 Antibody Alexa Fluor® 488

Intracellular staining of unstimulated (left) or 2-hour IFN lambda and overnight LPS-stimulated (right) normal human peripheral blood cells with staining buffer (autofluorescence) (open histogram) or Anti-Human IL-12 p40 Alexa Fluor 488 (filled histogram).  Cells in the monocyte gate were used for analysis.