Description: This FlowCytomix Simplex Kit is designed for the measurement of Human VEGF-D in an immunoassay analyzed on a flow cytometer. Together with the FlowCytomix Human Basic Kit (cat. BMS8420FF), this kit can be used to detect VEGF-D alone or can be multiplexed with other Simplex Kits to measure a variety of analytes.
This kit contains bead population A5.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D is a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/ VEGF family that induces angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. It consists of a central domain, containing binding sites for VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)/KDR and VEGFR-3/FLT-4, and N- and C-terminal propeptides. It is secreted from the cell as a homodimer of the full-length form that can be proteolytically processed to remove the propeptides. VEGF-D is structurally related to VEGF-C due to the presence of N- and C-terminal extensions which are not found in other VEGF family members. A high level of conservation is observed between mouse and human VEGF-D. VEGF-D is an activating ligand for VEGF-R2/KDR and VEGF-R3/FLT-4, but does not bind to VEGF-R1. VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3 are localized on vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells and signal for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
Human and mouse VEGF-D are highly expressed in the lung, and expression in embryonic lung is upregulated prior to birth. Activation of the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGF-R3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumors such as, e.g., lung cancer, mammary carcinoma, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. Generally, VEGF-D is expressed in a large variety of different tumor types like gastric and breast carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, lung adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and others. In several types of cancer such as lung cancer, oesophageal carcinoma, and primary lymphedema soluble VEGF-D has been shown to be increased in patient serum.