Description: This Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22 13plex FlowCytomix Multiplex is designed for the measurement of human IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12 p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-22 and TNF-alpha in an immunoassay analyzed on a flow cytometer.
CD4+ T helper cells are critical mediators of the cellular immune response. For many years, due to cytokine expression patterns, it was thought that CD4+ T helper cells existed as a dichotomy of lineages named Type-1 helper cells (Th-1) and type-2 helper cells (Th2). Type-1 cytokines include IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and TNF-beta, while Type-2 cytokines include IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13. However, as these Th1 / Th2 subsets were analyzed more closely, it became apparent that the T helper cell population was not limited to these two subsets. Although it has long been appreciated that IL-17 (also known as IL-17A) production by T cells is required for protection against some pathogens, in 2000 it was demonstrated that IL-17A was produced by a unique subset of T helper cells. Subsequently, it was definitively shown that T cells could differentiate into IL-17-producing cells in vitro and in vivo independently of Th1 or Th2 cell development thereby establishing Th17 cells as a unique T helper cell lineage. Functionally, Th17 cells play a role in host defense against extracellular pathogens by mediating the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to infected tissues. Moreover, it is becoming evident that aberrant regulation of Th17 cells may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
Another recently discovered subset of T-helper cells are the Th9 cells. TGF-beta, which is also of critical importance for the differentiation of Tregs (regulatory T cells) and Th17 cells, induces the reorganization of Th2 cells to Th9 cells which are characterized by their secretion of IL-9. Th9 cells can also be derived directly from naive CD4+ T cells with TGF-beta and IL-4. IL-9 is a member of the common cytokine receptor gamma chain-dependent family of cytokines which also includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21. Its pleiotropic effects on Th2 lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, mast cells, eosinophils and gut and airway epithelial cells have implicated IL-9 in asthma and other allergy-related disorders.
IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that is primarily secreted by Th17 cells. IL-23 and IL-6 can directly stimulate naive T cells to produce IL-22. Cell culture studies suggest that IL-22 may be secreted by more fully differentiated Th17 cells in vivo. Recently, it has been demonstrated that IL-22 is capable of protecting bacterial infections in the lungs and gut. Lately the name Th22 cells was proposed. Th22 cells infiltrate the epidermis in individuals with inflammatory skin disorders and are characterized by the secretion of IL-22 and TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17. Future strategies directed against the Th22 subset may be of value in the treatment of chronic inflammatory skin diseases.