Description: This Human Obesity 9plex FlowCytomix Multiplex is designed for the measurement of human sCD40L, sICAM-1, IL-6, Leptin, MCP-1, MPO, OPG, Resistin and sTNF-R (60kDa) in an immunoassay analyzed on a flow cytometer.
BMS816/2FF offers a panel of markers involved in the mechanisms and consequences of obesity.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a glycoprotein expressed in all cells of the myeloid linage. MPO is abundantly present in granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. It is an important enzyme used during phagocytic lysis of engulfed foreign particles which takes part in the defense of the organism through production of hypochlorous acid, a potent oxidant.
Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. Leptin binds to the Ventral Medial nucleus of the hypothalamus, known as the satiety center. Binding of Leptin to this nucleus signals to the brain that the body has had enough to eat. Thus, circulating Leptin levels give the brain a reading of energy storage for the purposes of regulating appetite and metabolism.
Among the hormones synthesized and released from adipose tissue, Resistin is an adipocytokine whose physiologic role has been the subject of much controversy regarding its involvement with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. Resistin was originally found to be produced and released from adipose tissue to serve endocrine functions likely involved in insulin resistance. This idea primarily stems from studies demonstrating that serum Resistin levels increase with obesity in several model systems. Since these observations, further research has linked Resistin to other physiological systems such as inflammation and energy homeostasis.
ICAM-1 seems to be the initial marker of inflammatory reactions and is expressed prior to, and to a greater extent than is HLA-DR and is involved in the lipid biosynthesis. ICAM-1 induction is associated with an elevated level of triglycerides. In human adipocytes lipolysis is stimulated and the expression of ICAM-1 is induced.
A key role of CD40/CD40ligand interactions in immune activation, particularly in T-cell dependent B cell responses.
The interaction of CD40 and CD154 is crucially involved in a number of inflammatory processes like atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of CD40L are described in pathological situations like adipositas, diabetes and myocardial infarct.
IL-6 is a multi-functional cytokine that regulates immune responses, acute phase reactions and hematopoiesis and may play a central role in host defense mechanisms.
In case of adipositas, adipocytes release inflammatory messengers such as IL-6.
TNF-receptors have been demonstrated on a wide variety of human somatic cells including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, adipocytes, liver membranes, granulocytes and several tumor cell lines. Normal and malignant human myeloid cells as well as mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes express similar numbers of TNF receptors, whereas resting lymphoid cells have fewer, red blood cells and platelets have no detectable TNF receptors. In most cases no correlation is observed between receptor number and sensitivity to TNF. The extracellular fragment of the 60 kDa TNF receptor is a 30 kDa protein liberated from the intact molecule by proteolytic cleavage and comprises most of the extracellular portion of the receptor, including all three N-glycosylation sites. It interacts with the TNF released by adipocytes.
The CC-chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), also known as monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) was characterized as a monocyte-specific chemoattractant that was later shown to attract also T lymphocytes and NK cells. It has been shown that adipositas is associated with an increased invasion of monocytes/macrophages into the fatty tissue. MCP-1 has been shown to be significantly higher expressed in women suffering from adipositas than in normal controls. MCP-1 secreted by adipocytes is stimulated by insulin thus playing an important role in the adipositas associated monocyte invasion into fatty tissue.
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a member of the TNF receptor family expressed by osteoblasts. OPG has documented effects on the regulation of bone metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and binds with strong affinity to its ligand RANKL, thereby preventing RANKL from binding its receptor RANK. This system is regulated by calcium-modifying hormones and the humoral factors.
A number of clinical implications of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK system for bone and vascular diseases have been described, OPG thus playing an important role in obesity.