Description: Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine which exists in five isoforms, known as TGF-β1-5, with homologies of 70-80% and no homology to TGF-α. TGF-β1 is the most abundant form in lymphoid organs and is found almost ubiquitously while other isoforms are expressed in a more restricted distribution. The biologically active forms of all isoforms are disulfide-linked homodimers. The heat- and acid- stable monomeric subunits have a length of 112 amino acids. The isoforms of TGF-β arise by proteolytic cleavage of longer precursors; the isoforms are derived from the carboxyterminal ends of these precursors. Isoforms isolated from different species are evolutionarily closely conserved and have sequence identities on the order of 98%. Mature human, porcine, simian, chicken and bovine TGF-β1 are identical and differ from mouse TGF-β1 in a single amino acid. TGF-β1 is produced in very high levels by platelets. Other cellular sources of TGF-β1 include macrophages, lymphocytes, endothelial cells, chondrocytes, and leukemic cells. TGF-β1 secretion can be induced by steroids, retinoids, EGF, NGF, vitamin D3, and IL-1. Activities of TGF-β1 include inhibition of cell growth for inhibitor for normal and transformed epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, and lymphoid cells and other hematopoietic cell types. TGF-β1 inhibits the proliferation of T cells and NK cells and downregulates the activities of activated macrophages. TGF-β1 blocks the anti-tumor activity of IL-2 – bearing lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Recently, TGF-β1 has been found to have a critical role in the development of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells exposed to tumors have been reported to secrete TGF-β1 and stimulate expansion of naturally-occurring T reg cells. Moreover, TGF-β1 has been shown to act as a costimulatory factor for expression of Foxp3, leading to the differentiation of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells from peripheral CD4+CD25- progeny. TGF-β-induced regulatory T cells have been termed Ti-Treg.
This Human/Mouse TGF-β1 ELISA Ready-SET-Go! Kit (with Pre-Coated Plates) contains the necessary reagents, standards, buffers and diluents for performing quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). This ELISA set is specifically engineered for accurate and precise measurement of mouse or human TGF-β1 protein levels from samples including serum, plasma, and supernatants from cell cultures.
Note: This sandwich ELISA recognizes the mature/active form of TGF-β1. Samples (but not standards) should be acid-treated and then neutralized to activate the latent TGF-β1 to the immunoreactive form. Samples should be tested in the ELISA immediately after acid treatment and neutralization. See 'Experimental Procedure'.