Description: Interleukin-1 is a potent immuno-modulator, which mediates a wide range of
immune and inflammatory responses. Human IL-1 is an 18.0 kDa protein
containing 159 amino acid residues.
The interleukin-1 species represent an important family of biologically active mono nuclear cell-derived proteins which are involved in inflammatory reactions and in immune responses. Two distinct human IL-1 species, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, have been identified. They share similarities such as the same molecular weight, similar biological effects and the same receptors on target cells. IL-1 proteins are produced by macrophages, monocytes and various other cell types such as adult T cell leukemias, fibroblasts, epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils and astrocytes. Their biological properties include pyrogenicity, bone resorption, presentation of antigen to T cells and stimulation of B and T lymphocyte proliferation. IL-1alpha is an extracellular peptide of 17 kDa, its activity has been demonstrated in various biological fluids including serum, synovial fluid, gingival fluid, amniotic fluid, sputum, cerebrosinal fluid, urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.
Elevated serum or blood levels of IL-1alpha have been found in patients with total hip replacement/ arthroplasties, in patients with recently diagnosted IDDM (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus), in case of several carcinomas such as head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer and thyroid cancer, in experimental acute pyelonephritis, in acute viral hepatitis and in septic shock.