VEGF-D

Alias: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D

VEGF-D is a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/ VEGF family that induces angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. It is secreted from the cell as a homodimer of the full-length form that can be proteolytically processed to remove the propeptides. VEGF-D is an activating ligand for VEGF-R2/KDR and VEGF-R3/FLT-4, but does not bind to VEGF-R1. VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3 are localized on vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells and signal for angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. VEGF-D is highly expressed in the lung and expression in embryonic lung is upregulated prior to birth. Activation of the VEGF-C/VEGF-D/VEGF-R3 axis increases motility and invasiveness of neoplastic cells, promotes development of metastases in several types of tumors such as lung cancer, breast cancers, cancers of the neck, prostate and large intestine. Generally, VEGF-D is expressed in a large variety of different tumor types like gastric and breast carcinoma, B cell lymphomas, lung adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and others. In several types of cancer such as lung cancer, oesophageal carcinoma, and primary lymphedema soluble VEGF-D has been shown to be increased in patient serum.