Transcription factor Sox2 belongs to the SOX (sex determining region Y -related HMG [High Mobility Group] Box) family of proteins. Sox family members play a role in early organ development, particularly Sox2 which is essential for regulating genes controlling normal mammalian embryogenesis. Sox2 and family member Sox3 are expressed as early as the preimplantation and epiblast stages while later expression is restricted to the neuroepithelium. Sox1 expression coincides with the induction of neural ectoderm and by early gastrulation all three genes are expressed throughout the cells comprising the neural plate.
Sox2 appears to be necessary for maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESC). Oct4 (POU5F1), Klf4, c-myc, and Sox2 were the original four factors used to reprogram differentiated mouse and human cells, inducing pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Sox2, in combination with Nanog and POU5F1, are expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and act cooperatively to maintain pluripotency in both mouse and human embryonic stem cells.
Expression of Sox2 is tightly regulated with recent studies demonstrating small changes in embryonic stem (ES) cell levels of Sox2, which can trigger differentiation into multiple cell types. Sox2 expression is not limited to ES cells and is also essential for early neurogenesis where expression becomes restricted to the neural plate, and later to neural stem cells, functioning to suppress neural differentiation.
Sox2 in combination with other stem cell markers can be used to characterize multiple stem cell populations. Ectopic expression of Sox2 has been associated with multiple cancer types including colorectal and breast.
|Btjce||FC, ICC, IHC, IHC-F, IHC-P||53-9811||RUO|
|Btjce||FC, ELISA, ICC, IHC, IHC-P, WB||14-9811||RUO|
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
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