Alias: Interleukin-4, B-cell stimulatory factor 1
IL-4 is a TH2 anti-inflammatory cytokine that is secreted by activated TH2 and NKT cells, and to a lesser extent by TH1 and mast cells. IL-4 exerts numerous effects on various hematopoietic cell types by biding to either type I or Type II IL-4R (the latter of which IL-13 also binds to and as such is also referred to as IL-13R). IL-4, by the means of STAT6 and GATA3, promotes TH2 cell differentiation that produces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. In B cells, IL-4 promotes proliferation and differentiation, promotes immunological class switching to IgE and IgG1 isotypes (in conjunction with other signals such as CD40), and upregulates MHC class II and CD23 expression. In T and B lymphocytes, mast cells, and endothelial cells, IL-4 promotes survival, growth, and differentiation. In macrophages, IL-4 can inhibit the production of TNF, IL-1, and IL-6. With its relevance to disease, IL-4 is an immune-stimulating molecule. As such it is one of the more recent targets being studied for new asthma treatments.
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
RUO = Research Use Only; GPR = General Purpose Reagent; ASR = Analyte Specific Reagent. Analytical and performance characteristics are not established; CE = CE-marked reagents