IL-2 is a TH1 cytokine that plays a central role in the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes that have been primed by antigens. IL-2 is pivotal for the expansion of most T cells, NK cells, and B cells during various phases of their response. IL-2 is made during T cell activation and fuels the growth of activated T cells. Apart from its most important role to mediate antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 also modulates the expression of IFNγ and MHC antigens, stimulates proliferation and differentiation of activated B cells, augments NK cell activity, and inhibits granulocyte-macrophage colony formation. IL-2 signals though various signaling pathways that include the activation of JAK/STAT5, the RAS/MAPK, and the PI3 Kinase pathways. These activations make IL-2 a known potent T cell growth factor, inducer of lymphokine-activated killer activity, boosts the cytolytic activity of NK cells, augmentation of Ig production, and an essential factor for the development of TReg cells. Even though IL-2 is a TH1 cytokine, it is a critical regulator of TH2 in a STAT5-dependent manner and an inhibitor TH17 differentiation/development. IL-2 is an important serum biomarker in several pathological situations such as cancer, infectious diseases, transplant rejection, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and type I diabetes.
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
RUO = Research Use Only; GPR = General Purpose Reagent; ASR = Analyte Specific Reagent. Analytical and performance characteristics are not established; CE = CE-marked reagents