Alias: Interleukin-18, IL1F4, IGIF
IL-18, an IL-1 family member, is a TH1-promoting cytokine. IL-18 is expressed by macrophages, dendritic cells, and ketatinocytes (epithelial cells). IL-18 binds to IL-18R on TH1 cells in response to IL-12 stimulation that results in the recruitment and its heterdimerization with IL-18RAP. This activates both the NFκB and MAPK pathways. The activity of IL-18 is held in control by IL-18BP, a soluble IL-18 binding protein found in 20-fold excess of IL-18 in non-inflammatory conditions. IL-18 is known to have various activities that include the induction of IL-4 and IL-13 basophils when combined with IL-3. IL-18 also works on dendritic cells to increase cytokine production and upregulation of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules. On macrophages, IL-18 enables the increased cytokine production and phagocytosis. In neutrophils, IL-18 helps to increase survival, adhesion, and oxidative burst and protease release. In basophils, IL-18 increases cytokine and histamine production. As a biomaker, high levels of IL-18 are found in both the blood and inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
RUO = Research Use Only; GPR = General Purpose Reagent; ASR = Analyte Specific Reagent. Analytical and performance characteristics are not established; CE = CE-marked reagents