Alias: Interleukin-10, Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor
IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory TH2 cytokine that has a critical role in limiting the immune response to pathogens to prevent host damage. Though IL-10 is associated with TH2 response, it appears to be more relevant to TReg cell responses. IL-10 is known to be expressed by many adaptive immune cells including TH2, TH17, TReg, and B cells, as well as innate immune cells including dendritic cells (DC), macrophages, mast cells, natural killer (NK) cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils. As IL-10 in produced in several T helper populations, it is proposed that it provides a feedback loop to limit the effector functions of macrophages and DCs on T cells. Once expressed, IL-10 signals through the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R) to activate STAT3. As IL-10 is a strong inhibitor of inflammation, it has become a viable biomarker for various diseases and conditions as well as a therapeutic molecule for certain conditions. In addition to elevated levels in parasitic infection, high expression levels of IL-10 are also found in retroviral infections inducing immunodeficiency. The immunosuppressive properties of IL-10 suggest a possible clinical use of IL-10 in suppressing rejections of grafts after organ transplantations.
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
RUO = Research Use Only; GPR = General Purpose Reagent; ASR = Analyte Specific Reagent. Analytical and performance characteristics are not established; CE = CE-marked reagents