CCL4 (MIP-1 beta)
Alias: MIP-1β, C-C motif chemokine 4, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1-beta
MIP-1β is a member of the CC-subfamily of chemokines and is most closely related to MIP-1α (CCL3). These proteins play critical roles in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation and signal through CCR1, CCR4, and CCR5. MIP-1α and MIP-1β are involved in response to their affects on cellular and humoral immune response. MIP-1α stimulates strong antigen specific responses, while MIP-1β promotes antibody responses. While both CCL3 and CCL4 are both chemoattractant for monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, they differ in there responses with T cells. While MIP-1α preferentially attracts CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells are more responsive to MIP-1β. MIP-1 protein expression levels has been shown to be important regarding numerous diseases such as multiple myeloma, asthmatic disorders, EAE, HIV, and sepsis.
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
RUO = Research Use Only; GPR = General Purpose Reagent; ASR = Analyte Specific Reagent. Analytical and performance characteristics are not established; CE = CE-marked reagents