c-Maf is a 42 kDa basic leucine zipper transcription factor shown to be involved in the neural, ocular and hematopoietic systems. In hematopoietic cells, it was first shown to be crucial for IL-4 expression in Th2 differentiation and was the first transcription factor believed to be Th subset-specific. More recent evidence indicates specific phospho-tyrosine residues lead to upregulation of IL-4. c-Maf has also been shown to be important to differentiation and function in both Th17 and Tfh cells.
c-Maf and Th17 Cells
Th17 cells act as a bridge between adaptive and innate immunity where they promote neutrophil activation and inflammation. c-Maf regulates the expansion and maintenance of Th17 cells through induction of IL-21 while promoting the expression of IL-23R. Additionally, c-Maf may be involved in IL-10 regulation during Th17 polarization, creating a feedback mechanism to limit autoimmune and inflammatory responses.
c-Maf and Tfh Cells
Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells are involved in the formation of lymph node germinal centers and regulate B cell differentiation into plasma cells or memory cells. A key transcriptional regulator of Tfh cells is Bcl6, and recent studies by Kroenke, MA, et al., describe Bcl6 coexpression with c-Maf induces CXCR4, CXCR5, PD-1 and ICOS, important proteins involved in trafficking to germinal centers or critical for T - B cell interactions. Additionally, c-Maf expression drives IL-21 production, a necessary cytokine for the induction of activated B cells into plasma cells.
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FC = Flow Cytometry, Intracellular Staining/Flow Cytometry; ELISA = ELISA, ELISPOT; Multiplex = Multiplex Immunoassays; ICC = Immunocytochemistry; IHC = Immunohistochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Imaging, In Vivo Imaging; IHC-F = Immunohistochemical Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections; IHC-P = Immunohistochemical Staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections; FA = Functional Assays, Bioassays, Neutralization, Depletion Studies, Biomolecule Conjugation; IP = Immunoprecipitation; WB = Western Blotting
RUO = Research Use Only; GPR = General Purpose Reagent; ASR = Analyte Specific Reagent. Analytical and performance characteristics are not established; CE = CE-marked reagents